A Minister of the Dutch Reformed South Church Africa, of now on study leave in Holland. The social segregation of Black, Coloured and White people was reflected in the establishment of churches of these three groups. The union was formalized in 1994, but for theological and procedural reasons, a large group of congregations decided to withdraw from the union. Serfontein.1 Based on years of extensive interviews with church people, it contains many So it was in the case of apartheid and the Dutch Reformed Church’s Calvinism. Dutch Reformed Church Abraham ... Afrikaner Calvinism, played an instrumental role in the development of Afrikaner nationalism and consequently in the apartheid ideology. It was costly for any Reformed minister in South Africa to oppose this appeal to the Bible in support of Apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church, which, as we will see, established lasting mythological frameworks of the ‘Volk’ and produced a narrative surrounding communism that, I will argue, allowed apartheid’s ideological gatekeepers to extend the “triumph of Christianity over heathendom”, 37. and “civilisation over barbarism” 38. Secretary of the General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa Dr. Landman gives an account of the social policy of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa and of its attitude to the ' apartheid ' policy. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The Church which would during the 20th century give birth to the doctrine of apartheid. Statement by Black Ministers of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Afrika (Dutch Reformed Church in Africa) Johannesburg. November 16, 1973. Key Words: Apartheid, Dutch Reformed Churches, Church Struggle, Broederkring, Belhar Introduction There is no clear consensus on the definition of human dignity. The ministers fraternal of the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa met to discuss newspaper reports which have recently appeared in connection with our rejection of apartheid… Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. ��� This annotated bibliography is an attempt to remind the Christiancommunity that the question of the relationship between Christianity andapartheid is hardly new, that already a large literature exists dealin… Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. At the previous meeting on October 10, 1973, this gathering decided that it was opposed to apartheid since it cannot be reconciled with the Word of God. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. Login failed. The Bible says: ‘There is … Critics of apartheid often blame Christians for itsexistence claiming that racial oppression in South Africa is the fruit ofChristianity. Authors: Jennifer Nelson. Duckworth exhibited at the Durban Art Gallery in 1971, at which point eight paintings … of which now form part of his private collection in the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Archive, this article traces Botha’s growing agitation regarding the implementation of apartheid policies, in the aftermath of the institution of the 1950 Group Areas Act. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. W. A. Landman. The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) in South Africa is currently striving to revive and enhance its missional identity with its core aspect being a church for Africa, said DRC general secretary Dr Gustav Claassen. One of the first champions of Afrikaner nationalism was an ordained minister, Stephen Du Toit (1847–1911) of the Dutch Reformed Church, who became one of the founding members (1881) of the Afrikaner Bond as well as the publisher of Die Afrikaanse Patriot newspaper (founded in 1876). Date: Monday, 29 October, 2018 - 15:00. It was only in 1998 that the DRC officially recognized apartheid "as wrong and sinful ... in its fundamental nature." The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. In spite of the end of apartheid, racial divides still exists within the church. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. The common point of reference in all of this, within the framework of Church history, is the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC). Jan van Riebeeck formally established the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) of South Africa in 1652. Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: Statement on Apartheid. The Church's Struggle Against Apartheid The failure to denounce, resist and incite to resist apartheid and its resulting violations of human rights, constitutes the failure of the church to live up to its faith convictions. Similarly, an official statement of the Reformed church stated, "The principle of apartheid between races and peoples, also separate missions and churches, is well supported by scripture." In 1996 the DRC had 1 288 837 White members, the Uniting Reformed Church (mainly Coloured) had 1 216 252 members, and the Reformed Church in Africa (mainly Indian) had 2 386 members. The theology of apartheid was based on the apparently innocuous principle that human diversity is God’s will. But the support for the Apartheid policies came from Calvinism's view of the world and not from Christ. What is more, they were very evangelistic and worked tirelessly to see black South Africans converted and worshiping in their own churches. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. Theology legitimised apartheid, but was also instrumental in its end. The history of the church has been very much bound up with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. In 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. By continuing to browse General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. Edit Submit Cancel Appears in. Early in his career, he served as a “missionary” in a DRMC congregation in Wynberg, and subsequently in other Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid; Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. Major Christian (Protestant) Church, originally in the Netherlands, but spreading to other parts of the world through missionary work.It was organized during the revolt of the Low Countries against Spain in the 16th cent. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 Thesis (9.834Mb) Date 2016. The Dutch Reformed Church (NG Kerk), whose congregants are predominantly white Afrikaans speakers, says it was part of the problem of apartheid, and … Page 1 of 13 - About 129 essays. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Did you know the Dutch Reformed Church, one of your Christian churches in South Africa upheld apartheid? When the Dutch settled in South Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries they transplanted their Dutch Reformed theology to the African continent. Dutch Reformed Church, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK), South African denomination that traces its beginnings to the Reformed tradition of the first white settlers who came to South Africa from the Netherlands in the mid-17th century. The best known of these, Reverend Beyers Naude, left his whites-only church in the late 1970s and joined a black parish within the Dutch Reformed church. How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. Near the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, the DRCA began union negotiations with the Dutch Reformed Mission Church. Formulating the ideology. The Rev. How are Christians to respond? Apartheid and The Reformed Churches: In Calvin's steps: Journal article containing an interview with Allan Boesak about the Dutch Reformed Christian Church. Longford, Samuel. Contributors. \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. More recently the church labelled apartheid as a sin in the hope of uniting its congregants regardless of race. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Mission Church with reference to involvement by their members in the struggle for justice in South Africa. Dutch reformed Church and apartheid theology 1829 The Confession of Belhar has as background the racial, racist, segregationist and apartheid history and theology in South Africa. D. P. (David) Botha was a lifelong apartheid critic and minister in the Dutch Reformed Mission Church (DRMC) and later the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). The history of the church has been very much bound with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. The Dutch Reformed Church and Apartheid Susan Rennie Ritner Among the many sad ironies of South African life perhaps none is more poignant than the role of the dominant church of the Afrikaner people - the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk.1 For the Afrikaners remain one of … The Reformed Church of South Africa was the largest denomination in the country by far. He believes his Church has been much misunderstood abroad on these matters. The first Dutch settlers who arrived at the Cape in 1652 also brought a Reformed church … General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. The suppression of communism, the Dutch Reformed Church, and the instrumentality of fear during apartheid. In 1986 the church showed its repentance by preaching for all members of all racial groups to pray under, one umbrella, thus making South African history by welcoming Black people back in the church. (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. In 1986 all congregations in the church were desegregated. Unknown: Rev. (Page 132 of her book.) (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. The best known of these, Reverend Beyers Naude, left his whites-only church in the late 1970s and joined a black parish within the Dutch Reformed church. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. The DRC general secretary explained how the DRC is the oldest church in the family of Reformed churches and, in the past, it was referred to as the “mother church”. The DRC of South Africa uses the symbols of bread and wine to commemorate the death of Jesus Christ. South Africa is in the news,and Christians are called upon to explain the relationship between Christianityand apartheid. In 1991, Dr. Coenie Burger of Stellenbosch University published his research on the state of practical theology for the South African Council of Human Science Research. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Presented by T. Dunbar Moodie . How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. In the early 1980s the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be a heresy and expelled the Dutch Reformed Church from its organisation. Their best scholars had doctorates from mainly Dutch Universities. Apartheid South Africa’s Participation in United Nations-Organized International Environ... A Racialised Social Question: Pension Reform in Apartheid South Africa, South Africa: Science communication throughout turbulent times. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. (Page 132 of her book.) Major Christian (Protestant) ... African Scene in the Light of Scripture, which offered justification of apartheid, but in 1982, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be heretical. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. … Following the expulsion the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa has moved away from supporting apartheid. They had a number of large and well-supported theological seminaries with very high standards. Church and society. Metadata Show full … Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Lean Library can solve it. They then later turned their backs on them and washed their hands of them. Genome BETA Radio Times 1923 - 2009. The Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa was formally established by Jan Van Riebeeck in 1652. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. The Church's Struggle Against Apartheid The failure to denounce, resist and incite to resist apartheid and its resulting violations of human rights, constitutes the failure of the church to live up to its faith convictions. The response of South Africa's religious institutions to apartheid spanned a wide spectrum – from overt support to tacit acceptance and outright rejection. January 2002 ; Journal of Hate Studies 2(1) DOI: 10.33972/jhs.11. Bishop Kevin Dowling admitted that the Catholic Church's ranks include "supporters and perpetrators of apartheid atrocities," although the church itself preached "reconciliation between victims and perpetrators." The Evangelical Origins of Apartheid: However from 1817, in response to a shortage of Dutch clergy to fill the DRC pulpits, the British Governor Somerset imported Scottish evangelical ministers, including the Murray family, to fulfill these Reformed pulpits. The separation on the basis of race goes… The church supported the system of apartheid, which institutionalized separation and stratification of the people of South Africa according to race. The Dutch Reformed Churches of South Africa engaged throughout the 18th century in a constant battle against modernism and modernity. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Collection Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. Influenced by Dutch Reformed Church leaders, the apartheid government sought to proscribe artistic works that expressed opposition to the politics and ideologies of the time. The Dutch Reformed Church and Apartheid. The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) helped apartheid tie the black and red threats together as a challenge to white, Christian, and Western values. The Role the Dutch Reformed Church Played in the Rise and Fall of Apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. See DRC, The Dutch Reformed Churches in South Africa and the Problem of Race Relations (n.d. [1956]), 13. First Dutch in the Cape. Theologizing in the Midst of Apartheid. Sharing links are not available for this article. B. Keet predicted that the Afrikaners, because they are a Bible-reading people, would eventually reject the apartheid ideology as unscriptural. The Headquarters of the Main Centre is in Pretoria. But the support for the Apartheid policies came from Calvinism's view of the world and not from Christ. a testimony of the Dutch Reformed Church. Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. Bloemfontein: NG Sendingpers, p.47. Journal of Contemporary History 1967 2: 4, 17-37 Download Citation. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. The heresy of apartheid: Journal article discussing the role of the Dutch Reformed Church in supporting the South African Government's policy of apartheid. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who chairs the body, said much had been achieved and expressed the hope that the Church's truth-telling would lead to an improved moral climate in South Africa." [1] In 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. A seven-dimensional praxis matrix is used to explore one of those trajectories, namely: “Standing for justice.” The sources used for this exploration are mainly official church documents. In the 1980s the church was expelled from the World Alliance of Reformed Churches for its support of apartheid. Confessing remorse about the evils of Apartheid: the Dutch Reformed Church in the Nineteen-Eighties. The DRC chaplains blessed soldiers before they went into Angola, and then days later when they committed human rights abuses did little to stop them. The apartheid bible finally emerged in its most sophisticated and definitive form as Human Relations and the South African Scene in the Light of Scripture, and was presented to the DRC General Synod in 1974. Tutu and others like him chose non-violent methods, for example protest movements, and petitions. The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article, Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. Indian Opinion Vol.56 No.36 Sep 1958 Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988, The crisis in the Dutch Reformed churches, Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid, Settler Colonialism and Afrikaner Nationalism, Hugh Eksteen Photographic Museum, Polokwane-Limpopo. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. In … YEARS ago, when his was still a lone voice, Professor B. Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. South Africa’s Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the Afrikaner people it served had, since the 17th century drawn a distinction between white ‘Christians’ and the apparently unconvertible ‘heathen’ peoples around them. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. An amended position appeared in Church and Society (1986), but it did not eradicate apartheid. World Cultures 2 Essay 1471 Words | 6 Pages. From Demonic Faith to Redemptive Faith: The Ambiguity of Faith in the ... View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. [1] His research was conducted in the late 1980s, at the height of Apartheid, in part, to explore the question of whether Reformed theology offered anything unique and distinctive to … Dutch Reformed Church. View or download all the content the society has access to. How a Church could ever support any form of discrimination is still surprising. To fight apartheid was to be branded a terrorist or communist, punishable by imprisonment, torture and death. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 4)The ministers’ fraternal noted with regret a rumor, according to news reports, that a possible split may occur between the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Church. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. This site uses cookies. ‘In spite of all the Christian churches in the American South I don’t recall reading of any outcry against slavery before the civil war. The religious connectedness would play a vital role in the Dutch criticism of apartheid. The Dutch Reformed Church submission brings to an end three days of testimony from the religious community about their role in the apartheid system. The The transition in South Africa from apartheid to a constitutional democracy with equal rights for all has been described and celebrated in innumerable accounts. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Baptismal water symbolises the death of the old sinful self and the rebirth into new life. Where were the Churches and God fearing Christians during segregation in the South in the earlier part of the last century. Show TV Channels Hide TV Channels TV ; Show Radio Channels Rather the church often got caught up in its debates on the legitimacy and right of resistance against the authorities. Search the BBC Search the BBC. Some joined the armed struggle against apartheid. The white-dominated ‘Dutch Reformed Church’ supported apartheid, arguing from the Bible that God deliberately divided people into different races (see Genesis 11) but used this to suggest therefore that the whites were superior to blacks. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below. The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. The second document constituted the first step the church took away from the policy of apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. 6 The “conditional” confession by the DRC of its complicity in the political system of apartheid also weakened the credibility of its This article explores the Aidron Duckworth case of 1971 as part of an anti-censorship campaign organised by the Pasquino Society. The first document stated the policy of the church on apartheid and defended the policy on biblical grounds. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. View/ Open. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) seems to provide a more negative explanation, namely freedom from fear and freedom from want. The The discourse between the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and race is a difficult and intense one. 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